Traditional institutions managing ICCAs have been undermined by colonial or centralised political systems, whereby governments have taken over most of the relevant functions and powers Many ICCAs are under attack due to inappropriate development and educational models, religious intrusions, and externally driven change of local value systems.

As ICCAs often contain valuable renewable and non-renewable resources timber, fauna, minerals, etc., they are often encroached or threatened by commercial users, land/resource traffickers, or even community members under the increasing influence of market forces ICCAs remain unrecognised in most countries, and the lack of political and legal support often hampers community efforts at maintaining them through traditional means.

Communities’ internal conflicts, inequities and weak institutions can pose difficulties for sustained local governance and managementThese and other challenges can be effectively faced jointly by communities and formal conservation agencies, with help from NGOs and others. This is beginning to happen in countries where ICCAs are formally recognised.

via – ICCA – Home page.