Free should imply no coercion, intimidation or manipulation;

Prior should imply consent has been sought sufficiently in advance of any authorization or commencement of activities and respect of time requirements of indigenous consultation/consensus processes;

Informed – should imply that information is provided that covers at least the following aspects:

  1. The nature, size, pace, reversibility and scope of any proposed project or activity;
  2. The reason/s or purpose of the project and/or activity;
  3. The duration of the above;
  4. The locality of areas that will be affected;
  5. A preliminary assessment of the likely economic, social, cultural and environmental impact, including potential risks and fair and equitable benefit sharing in a context that respects the precautionary principle;
  6. Personnel likely to be involved in the execution of the proposed project including indigenous peoples, private sector staff, research institutions, government employees, and others; and
  7. Procedures that the project may entail.


Consultation and participation are crucial components of a consent process. Consultation should be undertaken in good faith. The parties should establish a dialogue allowing them to find appropriate solutions in an atmosphere of mutual respect in good faith, and full and equitable participation. Consultation requires time and an effective system for communicating among interest holders. Indigenous peoples should be able to participate through their own freely chosen representatives and customary or other institutions. The inclusion of a gender perspective and the participation of indigenous women are essential, as well as participation of children and youth as appropriate. This process may include the option of withholding consent. Consent to any agreement should be interpreted as indigenous peoples having reasonably understood it.

via Free, Prior and Informed Consent in REDD+ |